RethinkDB is a modern NoSQL database that makes it easy to build realtime web services. One of its standout features is called Changefeeds. Applications can query tables for ongoing changes, and RethinkDB will push any changes to applications as they happen. The Changefeeds feature is interesting for many reasons:

  • You don’t need a separate message queue to wake up workers that operate on new data.
  • Database writes made from anywhere will propagate out as changes. Use the RethinkDB dashboard to muck with data? Run a migration script? Listeners will hear about it.
  • Filtering/squashing of change events within RethinkDB. In many cases it may be easier to filter events using ReQL than using a message queue and filtering workers.

This makes RethinkDB a compelling part of a realtime web service stack. In this article, we’ll describe how to use RethinkDB to implement a leaderboard API with realtime updates. Emphasis on API. Unlike other leaderboard examples you may have seen elsewhere, the focus here will be to create a clean API definition and use RethinkDB as part of the implementation. If you’re not sure what it means for an API to have realtime capabilities, check out this guide.

We’ll use the following components to build the leaderboard API:

Since the server app targets Heroku, we’ll be using environment variables for configuration and foreman for local testing.

Read on to see how it’s done. You can also look at the source.

Setup

To set up the environment locally, we install RethinkDB and Pushpin, and then set some notable environment variables in our .env file:

DATABASE_URL=rethinkdb://localhost:28015/leaderboard
GRIP_URL=http://localhost:5561?key=changeme

The DATABASE_URL points to the local instance of RethinkDB, in a way that’s similar to how you’d use the variable to point to PostgreSQL. Heroku doesn’t natively support RethinkDB, but we reuse this environment variable and our application includes its own code to parse it.

The GRIP_URL points to the control endpoint of Pushpin, used for publishing data to listening clients. Pushpin’s routes file contains a single line: * localhost:5000, which instructs it to forward requests to an origin server listening on port 5000, which is the default port used when running a Django application with foreman. We can then make requests through Pushpin (port 7999) to reach the Django application.

To set up the production environment in the cloud, follow these additional steps:

  • Set up RethinkDB somewhere. We’re using a single instance on a Rackspace server, but a more serious deployment should use multiple instances. You could also use something like Compose for this.
  • Set up a domain in Fanout Cloud with the origin server set to the backend Heroku app. We’re using a custom domain: api.leaderboardapp.org.
  • Configure DNS as necessary (e.g. we point leaderboardapp.org at Heroku and api.leaderboardapp.org at Fanout Cloud).
  • Use an SSH tunnel between Heroku and the RethinkDB server (see our tunnel.py script, which Compose also wrote about), and set the related SSH environment variables.
  • Set DATABASE_URL to point to the SSH tunnel.
  • Set GRIP_URL to point to the Fanout Cloud API, e.g.: https://api.fanout.io/realm/{realm-id}?iss={realm-id}&key=base64:{urlencoded key}.

Notably, there is no difference in application code between the two environments. Just the SSH tunnel and environment variables.

API definition

The leaderboard API is fairly simple, with two main endpoints:

  • GET /boards/{board-id}/ - Return the top players (with scores) of a given board. If the request includes the header Accept: text/event-stream, then the response will be a Server-Sent Events stream of changes instead.
  • POST /boards/{board-id}/players/{player-id}/score-add/ - Increment the score of a player.

Server-Sent Events is a simple protocol for pushing data to clients using a never-ending HTTP response. The event stream will contain events of type update, where the data for each event is the board object (the same data returned by a normal GET request). This way, clients that want to know the current leaderboard state in realtime can use the event stream rather than polling the board endpoint.

Models

To make it easy to interact with the database, we’ll create a couple of model classes: Board and Player. These classes won’t use the Django ORM, but they’ll be designed to behave similarly.

For example, here’s how the classes could be used to create a new leaderboard and add a player to it:

from leaderboardapp.models import Board, Player

board = Board()
board.save()

player = Player(board=board, name='Alice')
player.save()

In order to make this work, we create a private convenience method _get_conn(), which creates a RethinkDB r object and connects it to the server based on the DATABASE_URL. It also supports pre-populating the database on the first invocation, and is thread safe using threading.local(). Each thread will get its own connection.

import os
from urlparse import urlparse
import threading
import rethinkdb as r

_threadlocal = threading.local()

_url_parsed = urlparse(os.environ['DATABASE_URL'])
assert(_url_parsed.scheme == 'rethinkdb')
hostname = _url_parsed.hostname
port = _url_parsed.port
dbname = _url_parsed.path[1:]
del _url_parsed

def _ensure_db(conn):
# create database
try:
r.db_create(dbname).run(conn)

# ... set any db defaults here ...

except r.RqlRuntimeError:
# already created
pass

def _get_conn():
if not hasattr(_threadlocal, 'conn'):
_threadlocal.conn = r.connect(hostname, port)
_ensure_db(_threadlocal.conn)
return _threadlocal.conn

With our handy _get_conn() method, we are able to write model classes like this:

class Player(object):
def __init__(self, id=None, board=None, name=None, score=None):
self.id = id
self.board = board
if name is not None:
self.name = name
else:
self.name = ''
if score is not None:
self.score = score
else:
self.score = 0

def save(self):
if self.id:
self.get_row().update({
'name': self.name,
'score': self.score,
}).run(_get_conn())
else:
assert(self.board)
ret = Player.get_table().insert({
'name': self.name,
'score': self.score,
'board': self.board.id
}).run(_get_conn())
self.id = ret['generated_keys'][0]

def delete(self):
self.get_row().delete().run(_get_conn())

def get_row(self):
assert(self.id)
return Player.get_table().get(self.id)

def apply_rowdata(self, row):
if not self.id:
self.id = row['id']
if self.board is None:
self.board = Board(id=row['board'])
self.name = row['name']
self.score = row['score']

@staticmethod
def get_table():
try:
r.db(dbname).table_create('players').run(_get_conn())
except r.RqlRuntimeError:
# already created
pass
return r.db(dbname).table('players')

@staticmethod
def get(id):
row = Player.get_table().get(id).run(_get_conn())
if row is None:
raise ObjectDoesNotExist()
p = Player()
p.apply_rowdata(row)
return p

The above Player class encapsulates RethinkDB queries and exposes familiar methods to the user such as get(), save(), and delete().

For brevity, not all methods of the Player class are shown. See the source for all available methods. Two notable methods to be aware of, though, are get_top_for_board(), and get_all_changes(). Here’s the relevant code:

class Player(object):

...

@staticmethod
def get_top_for_board(board, limit=10):
out = list()
rows = Player.get_table().\
order_by(r.desc('score')).\
filter({'board': board.id}).\
limit(limit).run(_get_conn())
for row in rows:
p = Player(board=board)
p.apply_rowdata(row)
out.append(p)
return out

...

@staticmethod
def get_all_changes():
# use dedicated connection
changes_conn = r.connect(hostname, port)
return Player.get_table().changes().run(changes_conn)

The get_top_for_board() method returns the leading players of the board, sorted by score. The get_all_changes() method returns an iterable that can be used to read for new score changes. Reads will block until changes are made. More on that later.

Views

To assist with writing views, we declare some helper methods that handle assembling Board and Player objects into JSON responses:

def _board_data(board, players):
return {'players': [_player_data(p) for p in players]}

def _board_json(board, players, pretty=True):
if pretty:
indent = 4
else:
indent = None
return json.dumps(_board_data(board, players), indent=indent)

def _board_response(board, players):
return HttpResponse(_board_json(board, players) + '\n',
content_type='application/json')

def _player_data(player):
return {
'id': player.id,
'name': player.name,
'score': player.score
}

Implementing the /boards/{board-id}/ endpoint becomes straightforward:

from django.http import HttpResponse, HttpResponseNotFound, \
HttpResponseNotAllowed
from gripcontrol import HttpStreamFormat
from django_grip import set_hold_stream, publish
from .models import ObjectDoesNotExist, Board, Player

def board(request, board_id):
if request.method == 'GET':
try:
board = Board.get(board_id)
except ObjectDoesNotExist:
return HttpResponseNotFound('Not Found\n')

accept = request.META['HTTP_ACCEPT']
if accept:
accept = accept.split(',')[0].strip()
if accept == 'text/event-stream':
set_hold_stream(request, str(board_id))
return HttpResponse(content_type='text/event-stream')
else:
players = Player.get_top_for_board(board, limit=5)
return _board_response(board, players)
else:
return HttpResponseNotAllowed(['GET'])

If a normal GET request is made to the board endpoint, then the top 5 players are returned within the object summarization. Easy enough! However, if the client requests an event stream, then an HTTP streaming response is activated through Pushpin. We’ll discuss how that works in the next section.

Realtime updates

Now we get to the fun realtime stuff!

For the view, we call set_hold_stream() on the request object if it should be turned into a long-lived publish-subscribe stream:

if accept == 'text/event-stream':
set_hold_stream(request, str(board_id))
return HttpResponse(content_type='text/event-stream')

The second argument to set_hold_stream() is the channel to subscribe the request to. We’ll use the board id for that. The django-grip middleware ensures this information is passed to Pushpin when the HttpResponse is returned.

Note that the Django application does not hold the request open. It simply responds immediately (and statelessly) to Pushpin with subscription information, and it is Pushpin that actually holds the outer client request open.

We also include a publishing method in views.py, to handle the sending of realtime updates to listening clients:

def publish_board(board):
players = Player.get_top_for_board(board, limit=5)
publish(str(board.id),
HttpStreamFormat('event: update\ndata: %s\n\n' %
_board_json(board, players, pretty=False)))

This publish_board() method gets the latest board state and publishes it out using Server-Sent Events formatting.

Next, we glue this with the RethinkDB changefeed. We’ll create a separate worker module, dblistener.py, to listen for changes and publish updates. Here’s the complete code of the worker:

import os, django
os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE',
'leaderboard.settings')
django.setup()

import time
import logging
from rethinkdb.errors import RqlDriverError
from leaderboardapp.models import Board, Player
from leaderboardapp.views import publish_board

logger = logging.getLogger('dblistener')

while True:
try:
for change in Player.get_all_changes():
logger.debug('got change: %s' % change)
try:
row = change['new_val']
board = Board.get(row['board'])
publish_board(board)
except Exception:
logger.exception('failed to handle')
except RqlDriverError:
logger.exception('failed to connect')
time.sleep(1)

This worker will run separately from the web service, to ensure that there is only one instance running at a time. We declare it as worker in our Procfile.

The way the above code works is straightforward. It listens for player changes from the database using get_all_changes(). We then publish the full board state, using publish_board() from views.py. The while loop and try/except ensure that if the database connection is ever lost, the worker will re-run the query (which will cause a reconnect).

Front end

Check out the leaderboard in action here! http://leaderboardapp.org/

The front end is a simple React-based website that uses the leaderboard API underneath.

Conclusion

RethinkDB eases the development of realtime web services. Change notifications can be received directly from the database itself, allowing centralized management of updates. There’s also no need to use a separate message queue to propagate the updates to your edge tier.

Realtime API development doesn’t get easier than this!